The Money System
by Suzanne Phillips
For The Scottish Distillers
if a Scottish distiller wishes to send a cargo of Scotch whiskey
to these United States, he can draw his bill against the purchasing
bootlegger in dollars and after the bootlegger has accepted it
by writing his name across the face of it, the Scotch distiller
can send that bill to the nefarious open discount market in New
York City where the Fed will buy it and use it as collateral for
a new issue of Fed Notes. Thus the Government of these United
States pay the Scotch distiller for the whiskey before it is shipped,
and if it is lost on the way, or if the Coast Guard seizes it
and destroys it, the Fed simply write off the loss and the government
never recovers the money that was paid to the Scotch distiller.
are attempting to enforce prohibition here, the Fed are in the
distillery business in Europe and paying bootlegger bills with
public credit of these United States. "Mr. Chairman, by the same
process, they compel our Government to pay the German brewer for
his beer. Why should the Fed be permitted to finance the brewing
industry in Germany either in this way or as they do by compelling
small and fearful United States Banks to take stock in the Isenbeck
Brewery and in the German Bank for brewing industries? "Mr. Chairman,
if Dynamit Nobel of Germany, wishes to sell dynamite in Japan
to use in Manchuria or elsewhere, it can drew its bill against
the Japanese customers in dollars and send that bill to the nefarious
open discount market in New York City where the Fed will buy it
and use it as collateral for a new issue of Fed Notes- while at
the same time the Fed will be helping Dynamit Nobel by stuffing
its stock into the United States banking system.
should we send our representatives to the disarmament conference
at Geneva- while the Fed is making our Government pay Japanese
debts to German Munitions makers?
if a German wishes to raise a crop of beans and sell them to a
Japanese customer, he can draw a bill against his prospective
Japanese customer in dollars and have it purchased by the Fed
and get the money out of this Country at the expense of the American
people before he has even planted the beans in the ground. "Mr.
Chairman, if a German in Germany wishes to export goods to South
America, or any other Country, he can draw his bill against his
customers and send it to these United States and get the money
out of this Country before he ships, or even manufactures the
why should the currency of these United States be issued on the
strength of German Beer? Why should it be issued on the crop of
unplanted beans to be grown in Chili for Japanese consumption?
Why should these United States be compelled to issue many billions
of dollars every year to pay the debts of one foreigner to another
foreigner? "Was it for this that our National Bank depositors
had their money taken out of our banks and shipped abroad? Was
it for this that they had to lose it? Why should the public credit
of these United States and likewise money belonging to our National
Bank depositors be used to support foreign brewers, narcotic drug
vendors, whiskey distillers, wig makes, human hair merchants,
Chilean bean growers, to finance the munition factories of Germany
and Soviet Russia?
The United States Has Been Ransacked
States has been ransacked and pillaged. Our structures have been
gutted and only the walls are left standing. While being perpetrated,
everything the world would rake up to sell us was brought in here
at our expense by the Fed until our markets were swamped with
unneeded and unwanted imported goods priced far above their value
and make to equal the dollar volume of our honest exports, and
to kill or reduce our favorite balance of trade. As Agents of
the foreign central banks the Fed try by every means in their
power to reduce our favorable balance of trade. They act for their
foreign principal and they accept fees from foreigners for acting
against the best interests of these United States. Naturally there
has been great competition among among foreigners for the favors
of the Fed.
"What we need
to do is to send the reserves of our National Banks home to the
people who earned and produced them and who still own them and
to the banks which were compelled to surrender them to predatory
there is nothing like the Fed pool of confiscated bank deposits
in the world. It is a public trough of American wealth in which
the foreigners claim rights, equal to or greater than Americans.
The Fed are the agents of the foreign central banks. They use
our bank depositors' money for the benefit of their foreign principals.
They barter the public credit of the United States Government
and hire it our to foreigners at a profit to themselves.
is done at the expense of the United States Government, and at
a sickening loss to the American people. Only our great wealth
enabled us to stand the drain of it as long as we did.
"We need to
destroy the Fed wherein our national reserves are impounded for
the benefit of the foreigners. "We need to save America for Americans.
when you hold a $10.00 Fed Note in your hand, you are holding
apiece of paper which sooner or later is going to cost the United
States Government $10.00 in gold (unless the Government is obliged
to go off the gold standard). It is based on limburger cheese
(reported to be in foreign warehouses) or in cans purported to
contain peas (but may contain salt water instead), or horse meat,
illicit drugs, bootleggers fancies, rags and bones from Soviet
Russia (of which these United States imported over a million dollars
worth last year), on wines whiskey, natural gas, goat and dog
fur, garlic on the string, and Bombay ducks.
"If you like
to have paper money- which is secured by such commodities- you
have it in Fed Note. If you desire to obtain the thing of value
upon which this paper currency is based, that is, the limburger
cheese, the whiskey, the illicit drugs, or any of the other staples-
you will have a very hard time finding them.
"Many of these
worshipful commodities are in foreign Countries. Are you going
to Germany to inspect her warehouses to see if the specified things
of value are there? I think more, I do not think that you would
find them there if you did go.
27, 1932, the Fed outfit sent $750,000 belonging to American bank
depositors in gold to Germany. A week later another $300,000 in
gold was shipped to Germany. About the middle of May $12,000,000
in gold was shipped to Germany by the Fed. Almost every week there
is a shipment of gold to Germany. These shipments are not made
for profit on the exchange since the German marks are blow parity
with the dollar.
I believe that the National Bank depositors of these United States
have a right to know what the Fed are doing with their money.
There are millions of National Bank depositors in the Country
who do not know that a percentage of every dollar they deposit
in a Member Bank of the Fed goes automatically to American Agents
of the foreign banks and that all their deposits can be paid away
to foreigners without their knowledge or consent by the crooked
machinery of the Fed and the questionable practices of the Fed.
Problem with next paragraph in original] "Mr. Chairman, the American
people should be told the truth by their servants in office. In
1930, we had over a half billion dollars outstanding daily to
finance foreign goods stored in or shipped between several billion
dollars. What goods are these on which the Fed yearly pledge several
billions of dollars. In its yearly total, this item amounts to
several billions of dollars of the public credit of these United
are those which are hidden in European and Asiatic stores have
not been seen by any officer of our Government but which are being
financed on the public credit of the United States Government?
What goods are those upon which the 17 United States Government
is being obligated by the Fed to issue Fed Notes to the extent
of several billions of dollars a year?
"The Fed have
been International Banks from the beginning, with these United
States as their enforced banker and supplier of currency. But
it is none the less extraordinary to see these these twelve private
credit monopolies, buying the debts of foreigners against foreigners,
in all parts of the world and asking the Government of these United
States for new issues of Fed notes in exchange for them. "The
magnitude of the acceptance racket as it has been developed by
the Fed, their foreign correspondents, and the predatory European
born bankers, who set up the Fed here and taught your own, by
and of pirates, how to loot the people: I say the magnitude of
this racket is estimated to be in the neighborhood of 9,000,000,000
per year. In the past ten years it is said to have amounted to
$90,000,000,000.00. In my opinion it has amounted to several times
that much. coupled to this you have to the extent of billions
of dollars, the gambling in the United States securities, which
takes place in the same open discount market- a gambling on which
the Fed is now spending $100,000,000.00 per week.
are taken from the U.S. Government in unlimited quantities. Is
is strange that the burden of supplying these immense sums of
money to the gambling fraternity has at last proved too heavy
for the American people to endure? Would it not be a national
[calamity to] again bind down this burden on the backs of the
American people and by means of a long rawhide whip of the
credit masters, compel them to enter another seventeen years of
trying to do that now. They are trying to take $100,000,000.00
of the public credit of the United States every week, in addition
to all their other seizures and they are sending that money to
the nefarious open market in a desperate gamble to reestablish
their graft as a going concern.
putting the United States Government in debt to the extent of
$100,000,000 a week, and with the money they are buying our Government
securities for themselves and their foreign principals. Our people
are disgusted with the experiences of the Fed. The Fed is not
producing a loaf of bread, a yard of cloth, a bushel of corn,
or a pile of cordwood by its check-kiting operations in the money
on the 13th of January of this year I addressed the House on the
subject of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. In the course
of my remarks I made the following statement: In 1928 the member
banks of the Fed borrowed $60,598,690,000. from the Fed on their
fifteen-day promissory notes. Think of it. Sixty billion dollars
payable on demand in gold in the course of one single year. The
actual amount of such obligations called for six times as much
monetary gold as there is in the world. Such transactions represent
a grant in the course of one single years of about $7,000,000
to every member of the Fed.
"Is it any
wonder that American labor which ultimately pays the cost of all
banking operations of this Country has at last proved unequal
to the task of supplying this huge total of cash and credit for
the benefit of the stock market manipulators and foreign swindlers?
"In 1933 the Fed presented the staggering amount of $60,598,690,000
to its member banks at the expense of the wage earners and tax
payers of these United States. In 1929, the year of the stock
market crash, the Fed advanced $58,000,000,000 to member banks.
"In 1930 while
the speculating banks were getting out of the stock market at
the expense of the general public, the Fed advanced them $13,022,782,000.
This shows that when the banks were gambling on the public credit
of these United States as represented by the Fed currency they
were subsidized to any amount they required by the Fed. When the
swindle began to fall, the bankers knew it in advance and withdrew
from the market. They got out with whole skins- and left the people
of these United States to pay the piper. "My friend from Kansas,
Mr. McGugin, has stated that he thought the Fed lent money on
rediscounting. So they do, but they lend comparatively little
that way. The real discounting that they do has been called a
mere penny in the slot business. It is too slow for genuine high
flyers. They discourage it. They prefer to subsidize their favorite
banks by making them $60,000,000,000 advances and they prefer
to acquire assistance in the notorious open discount market in
New York, where they can use it to control the price of stocks
and bonds on the exchanges.
dollar they advanced on discounts in 1928, they lent $33.00 to
their favorite banks for whom they do a business of several billion
dollars income tax on their profits to these United States.
"This is the
John Law swindle over again. The theft of Teapot Dome was trifling
compared to it. What King ever robbed his subject to such an extent
as the Fed has robbed us? Is it any wonder that there have been
lately ninety cases of starvation in one of the New York hospitals?
Is there any wonder that the children are being abandoned?
and the people of these United States have been swindled by swindlers
deluxe to whom the acquisition of American or a parcel of Fed
Notes presented no more difficulty than the drawing up of a worthless
acceptance in a Country not subject to the laws of these United
States, by sharpers not subject to the jurisdiction of these United
States, sharpers with strong banking "fence" on this side of the
water, a "fence" acting as a receiver of a worthless paper coming
from abroad, endorsing it and getting the currency out of the
Fed for it as quickly as possible exchanging that currency for
gold and in turn transmitting the gold to its foreign confederates.
the Match King!
the exploits of Ivar Krueger, Mr. Hoover's friend, and his rotten
Wall Street bakers. Every dollar of the billions Kreuger and his
gang drew out of this Country on acceptances was drawn from the
government and the people of the United States through the Fed.
The credit of the United States Government was peddled to him
by the Fed for their own private gain. That is what the Fed has
been doing for many years.
been peddling the credit of this Government and the [signature
of this] Government to the swindlers and speculators of all nations.
That is what happens when a Country forsakes its Constitution
and gives its sovereignty over the public currency to private
interests. Give them the flag and they will sell it.
of Kreuger's organized swindle and the bankrupt condition of Kreuger's
combine was known here last June when Hoover sought to exempt
Krueger's loan to Germany of $125,000,000 from the operation of
the Hoover Moratorium. The bankrupt condition of Krueger's swindle
was known her last summer when $30,000,000 was taken from the
American taxpayers by certain bankers in New York for the ostensible
purpose of permitting Krueger to make a loan to Colombia. Colombia
never saw that money.
of Krueger's swindle was known here in January when he visited
his friend, Mr. Hoover, at the White House. It was known here
in March before he went to Paris and committed suicide.
I think the people of the United States are entitled to know how
many billions of dollars were placed at the disposal of Krueger
and his gigantic combine by the Fed, and to know how much of our
Government currency was issued and lost in the financing of that
great swindle in the years during which the Fed took care of Krueger's
"A few days
ago, the President of the United States with a white face and
shaking hands, went before the Senate of behalf of the moneyed
interests and asked the Senate to levy a tax on the people so
that foreigners might know that these United States would pay
its debt to them.
thought it was the other way around. What does these United States
owe foreigners? When and by whom was the debt incurred? It was
incurred by the Fed, when they peddled the signature of the Government
to foreigners- for a Price. It is what the United States Government
has to pay to redeem the obligations of the Fed.
Go Scot Free
"Are you going
to let these thieves get off scot free? Is there one law for the
looter who drives up to the door of the United States Treasury
in his limousine and another for the United States Veterans who
are sleeping on the floor of a dilapidated house on the outskirts
and Ohio Railroad is here asking for a large loan from the people,
and the wage earners and the taxpayers of these United States.
It is begging for a handout from the Government. It is standing,
cap in hand, at the door of the R.F.C. where all the jackals have
gathered to the feast. It is asking for money that was raised
from the people by taxation and wants this money of the poor for
the benefit of Kuhn, Loeb and Co., the German International Bankers.
one law for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and another for the
hungry veterans it threw off its freight cars the other day? Is
there one law for sleek and prosperous swindlers who call themselves
bankers and another law for the soldiers who defended the flag?
"The R.F.C. is taking over these worthless securities from the
Investment Trusts with United States Treasury money at the expense
of the American taxpayer and the wage earner.
"It will take
twenty years to redeem our Government. Twenty years of penal servitude
to pay off the gambling debts of the traitorous Fed and to vast
flood of American wages and savings, bank deposits, and the United
States Government credit which the Fed exported out of this country
to their foreign principals.
"The Fed lately
conducted an anti-hoarding campaign here. They they took that
extra money which they had persuaded the American people to put
into the banks- they sent it to Europe- along with the rest. In
the last several months, they have sent $1,300,000,000 in gold
to their foreign employers, their foreign masters, and every dollar
of that gold belonged to the people of these United States and
was unlawfully taken from them.
within the limits of the time allowed me, I cannot enter into
a particularized discussion of the Fed. I have singled out the
Fed currency for a few remarks because there has lately been some
talk here of "fiat money". What kind of money is being pumped
into the open discount market and through it into foreign channels
and stock exchanges? Mr. Mills of the Treasury has spoken here
of his horror of the printing presses and his horror of dishonest
money. He has no horror of dishonest money. If he had, he would
be no party to the present gambling of the Fed in the nefarious
open discount market of New York, a market in which the sellers
are represented by 10 discount corporations owned and organized
by the very banks which own and control the Fed.
Mills is fighting for is the preservation, whole and entire, of
the banker's monopoly of all the currency of the United States
last December, I introduced a resolution here asking for an examination
and an audit of the Fed and all related matters. If the House
sees fit to make such an investigation, the people of these United
States will obtain information of great value. This is a Government
of the people, by the people, for the people. Consequently, nothing
should be concealed from the people. The man who deceives the
people is a traitor to these United States.
"The man who
knows or suspects that a crime has been committed and who conceals
and covers up that crime is an accessory to it. Mr. Speaker, it
is a monstrous thing for this great nation of people to have its
destinies presided over by a traitorous government board acting
in secret concert with international usurers.
has been made by the Fed to conceal its powers- but the truth
is- the Fed has usurped the Government. It controls everything
here and it controls all of our foreign relations. It makes and
breaks governments at will.
"No man and
no body of men is more entrenched in power than the arrogant credit
monopoly which operated the Fed. What National Government has
permitted the Fed to steal from the people should now be restored
to the people. The people have a valid claim against the Fed.
If that claim is enforced the Americans will not need to stand
in the bread line, or to suffer and die of starvation in the streets.
Women will be saved, families will be kept together, and American
children will not be dispersed and abandoned.
"Here is a
Fed Note. Immense numbers of the notes are now held abroad. I
am told that they amount to upwards of a billion dollars. They
constitute a claim against our Government and likewise a claim
against our peoples' money to the extent of $1,300,000,000 which
has within the last few months been shipped abroad to redeem Fed
Notes and to pay other gambling debts of the traitorous Fed. The
greater part of our money stock has been shipped to other lands.
we promise to pay the debts of foreigners to foreigners? Why should
the Fed be permitted to finance our competitors in all parts of
the world? Do you know why the tariff was raised? It was raised
to shut out the flood of Fed Goods pouring in here from every
quarter of the globe- cheap goods, produced by cheaply paid foreign
labor, on unlimited supplies of money and credit sent out of this
Country by the dishonest and unscrupulous Fed.
"The Fed are
spending $100,000,000 a week buying government securities in the
open market and are making a great bid for foreign business. They
are trying to make rates so attractive that the human hair merchants
and the distillers and other business entities in foreign land
will come her and hire more of the public credit of the United
States Government to pay the Fed outfit for getting it for them.
when the Fed was passed, the people of these United States did
not perceive that a world system was being set up here which would
make the savings of the American school teacher available to a
narcotic-drug vendor in Acapulco. They did not perceive that these
United States was to be lowered to the position of a coolie country
which has nothing but raw material and heart, that Russia was
destined to supply the man power and that this country was to
supply the financial power to an "international superstate". A
superstate controlled by international bankers, and international
industrialists acting together to enslave the world for their
of these United States are being greatly wronged. They have been
driven from their employments. They have been dispossessed from
their homes. They have been evicted from their rented quarters.
They have lost their children. They have been left to suffer and
die for lack of shelter, food, clothing and medicine.
of these United States and the working capital have been taken
away from them and has either been locked in the vaults of certain
banks and the great corporations or exported to foreign countries
for the benefit of the foreign customers of these banks and corporations.
So far as the people of the United States are concerned, the cupboard
"It is true
that the warehouses and coal yards and grain elevators are full,
but these are padlocked, and the great banks and corporations
hold the keys.
of these United States by the Fed is the greatest crime in history.
a serious situation confronts the House of Representatives today.
We are trustees of the people and the rights of the people are
being taken away from them. Through the Fed the people are losing
the rights guaranteed to them by the Constitution. Their property
has been taken from them without due process of law. Mr. Chairman,
common decency requires us to examine the public accounts of the
Government and see what crimes against the public welfare have
"What is needed
here is a return to the Constitution of these United States.
"The old struggle
that was fought out here in Jackson's time must be fought our
over again. The independent United States Treasury should be reestablished
and the Government should keep its own money under lock and key
in the building the people provided for that purpose.
the devise of the swindler, should be done away with. The Fed
should be abolished and the State boundaries should be respected.
Bank reserves should be kept within the boundaries of the States
whose people own them, and this reserve money of the people should
be protected so that the International Bankers and acceptance
bankers and discount dealers cannot draw it away from them.
"The Fed should
be repealed, and the Fed Banks, having violated their charters,
should be liquidated immediately. Faithless Government officials
who have violated their oaths of office should be impeached and
brought to trial.
is done by us, I predict, that the American people, outraged,
pillaged, insulted and betrayed as they are in their own land,
will rise in their wrath, and will sweep the money changers out
of the temple.
the United States is bankrupt: It has been bankrupted by the corrupt
and dishonest Fed. It has repudiated its debts to its own citizens.
Its chief foreign creditor is Great Britain, and a British bailiff
has been at the White House and the British Agents are in the
United States Treasury making inventory arranging terms of liquidations!
Partner in Blackmail
the Fed has offered to collect the British claims in full from
the American public by trickery and corruption, if Great Britain
will help to conceal its crimes. The British are shielding their
agents, the Fed, because they do not wish that system of robbery
to be destroyed here. They wish it to continue for their benefit!
By means of it, Great Britain has become the financial mistress
of the world. She has regained the position she occupied before
the World War.
years she has been a silent partner in the business of the Fed.
Under threat of blackmail, or by their bribery, or by their native
treachery to the people of the United States, the officials in
charge of the Fed unwisely gave Great Britain immense gold loans
running into hundreds of millions of dollars. They did this against
the law! Those gold loans were not single transactions. They gave
Great Britain a borrowing power in the United States of billions.
She squeezed billions out of this Country by means of her control
of the Fed.
"As soon as
the Hoover Moratorium was announced, Great Britain moved to consolidate
her gains. After the treacherous signing away of American rights
at the 7-power conference at London in July, 1931, which put the
Fed under the control of the Bank of International Settlements,
Great Britain began to tighten the hangman's noose around the
neck of the United States.
the gold standard and embarked on a campaign of buying up the
claims of foreigners against the Fed in all parts of the world.
She has now sent her bailiff, Ramsey MacDonald, here to get her
war debt to this country canceled. But she has a club in her hands!
She has title to the gambling debts which the corrupt and dishonest
Fed incurred abroad.
the labor party deserter, has come here to compel the President
to sign on the dotted line, and that is what Roosevelt is about
to do! Roosevelt will endeavor to conceal the nature of his action
from the American people. But he will obey the International Bankers
and transfer the war debt that Great Britain should pay to the
American people, to the shoulders of the American taxpayers.
the bank holiday in the several States was brought about by the
corrupt and dishonest Fed. These institutions manipulated money
and credit, and caused the States to order bank holidays.
were frame-ups! "They were dress rehearsals for the national bank
holiday which Franklin D. Roosevelt promised Sir Ramsey MacDonald
that he would declare.
no national emergency here when Franklin D. Roosevelt took office
excepting the bankruptcy of the Fed- a bankruptcy which has been
going on under cover for several years and which has been concealed
from the people so that the people would continue to permit their
bank deposits and their bank reserves and their gold and the funds
of the United States Treasury to be impounded in these bankrupt
the predatory International Bankers have been stealthily transferring
the burden of the Fed debts to the people's Treasury and to the
people themselves. They the farms and the homes of the United
States to pay for their thievery! That is the only national emergency
that there has been here since the depression began.
before the bank holiday ws declared in New York State, the deposits
in the New York savings banks were greater than the withdrawals.
There were no runs on New York Banks. There was no need of a bank
holiday in New York, or of a national holiday.
and the International Bankers
did what the International Bankers ordered him to do!
"Do not deceive
yourself, Mr. Chairman, or permit yourself to be deceived by others
into the belief that Roosevelt's dictatorship is in any way intended
to benefit the people of the United States: he is preparing to
sign on the dotted line! "He is preparing to cancel the war debts
"He is preparing
to internationalize this Country and to destroy our Constitution
itself in order to keep the Fed intact as a money institution
for foreigners. "Mr. Chairman, I see no reason why citizens of
the United States should be terrorized into surrendering their
property to the International Bankers who own and control the
Fed. The statement that gold would be taken from its lawful owners
if they did not voluntarily surrender it, to private interests,
show that there is an anarchist in our Government.
that it is necessary for the people to give their gold- the only
real money- to the banks in order to protect the currency, is
a statement of calculated dishonesty!
"By his unlawful
usurpation of power on the night of March 5, 1933, and by his
proclamation, which in my opinion was in violation of the Constitution
of the United States, Roosevelt divorced the currency of the United
States from gold, and the United States currency is no longer
protected by gold. It is therefore sheer dishonesty to say that
the people's gold is needed to protect the currency.
ordered the people to give their gold to private interests- that
is, to banks, and he took control of the banks so that all the
gold and gold values in them, or given into them, might be handed
over to the predatory International Bankers who own and control
cast his lot with the usurers. "He agreed to save the corrupt
and dishonest at the expense of the people of the United
"He took advantage
of the people's confusion and weariness and spread the dragnet
over the United States to capture everything of value that was
left in it. He made a great haul for the International Bankers.
Minister of England came here for money! He came here to collect
"He came here
with Fed Currency and other claims against the Fed which England
had bought up in all parts of the world. And he has presented
them for redemption in gold.
I am in favor of compelling the Fed to pay their own debts. I
see no reason why the general public should be forced to pay the
gambling debts of the International Bankers.
Seizes the Gold
"By his action
in closing the banks of the United States, Roosevelt seized the
gold value of forty billions or more of bank deposits in the United
States banks. Those deposits were deposits of gold values. By
his action he has rendered them payable to the depositors in paper
only, if payable at all, and the paper money he proposes to pay
out to bank depositors and to the people generally in lieu of
their hard earned gold values in itself, and being based on nothing
into which the people can convert it the said paper money is of
negligible value altogether.
"It is the
money of slaves, not of free men. If the people of the United
States permit it to be imposed upon them at the will of their
credit masters, the next step in their downward progress will
be their acceptance of orders on company stores for what they
eat and wear. Their case will be similar to that of starving coal
miners. They, too, will be paid with orders on Company stores
for food and clothing, both of indifferent quality and be forced
to live in Company-owned houses from which they may be evicted
at the drop of a hat. More of them will be forced into conscript
labor camps under supervision.
"At noon on
the 4th of March, 1933, FDR with his hand on the Bible, took an
oath to preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the U.S.
At midnight on the 5th of March, 1933, he confiscated the property
of American citizens. He took the currency of the United States
standard of value. He repudiated the internal debt of the Government
to its own citizens. He destroyed the value of the American dollar.
He released, or endeavored to release, the Fed from their contractual
liability to redeem Fed currency in gold or lawful money on a
parity with gold. He depreciated the value of the national currency.
of the U.S. are now using unredeemable paper slips for money.
The Treasury cannot redeem that paper in gold or silver. The gold
and silver of the Treasury has unlawfully been given to the corrupt
and dishonest Fed. And the Administration has since had the effrontery
to raid the country for more gold for the private interests by
telling our patriotic citizens that their gold is needed to protect
"It is not
being used to protect the currency! It is being used to protect
the corrupt and dishonest Fed. "The directors of these institutions
have committed criminal offense against the United States Government,
including the offense of making false entries on their books,
and the still more serious offense of unlawfully abstracting funds
from the United States Treasury! "Roosevelt's gold raid is intended
to help them out of the pit they dug for themselves when they
gambled away the wealth and savings of the American people.
Bankers set up a dictatorship here because they wanted a dictator
who would protect them. They wanted a dictator who would protect
them. They wanted a dictator who would issue a proclamation giving
the Fed an absolute and unconditional release from their special
currency in gold, or lawful money of any Fed Bank.
relieved any other class of debtors in this country from the necessity
of paying their debts? Has he made a proclamation telling the
farmers that they need not pay their mortgages? Has he made a
proclamation to the effect that mothers of starving children need
not pay their milk bills? Has he made a proclamation relieving
householders from the necessity of paying rent?
Two Kinds of Laws
"Not he! He
has issued one kind of proclamation only, and that is a proclamation
to relieve international bankers and the foreign debtors of the
United States Government.
the gold in the banks of this country belongs to the American
people who have paper money contracts for it in the form of national
currency. If the Fed cannot keep their contracts with United States
citizens to redeem their paper money in gold, or lawful money,
then the Fed must be taken over by the United States Government
and their officers must be put on trial.
be a day of reckoning. If the Fed have looted the Treasury so
that the Treasury cannot redeem the United States currency for
which it is liable in gold, then the Fed must be driven out of
a gold certificate is a warehouse receipt for gold in the Treasury,
and the man who has a gold certificate is the actual owner of
a corresponding amount of gold stacked in the Treasury subject
to his order.
Roosevelt who seeks to render the money of the United States worthless
by unlawfully declaring that it may No Longer be converted
into gold at the will of the holder.
next haul for the International Bankers was the reduction in the
pay of all Federal employees.
"Next in order
are the veterans of all wars, many of whom are aged and inform,
and other sick and disabled. These men had their lives adjusted
for them by acts of Congress determining the amounts of the pensions,
and, while it is meant that every citizen should sacrifice himself
for the good of the United States, I see no reason why those poor
people, these aged Civil War Veterans and war widows and half-starved
veterans of the World War, should be compelled to give up their
pensions for the financial benefit of the International vultures
who have looted the Treasury, bankrupted the country and traitorously
delivered the United States to a foreign foe.
many ways of raising revenue that are better than that barbaric
act of injustice.
"Why not collect
from the Fed the amount they owe the U.S. Treasury in interest
on all the Fed currency they have taken from the Government? That
would put billions of dollars into the U.S. Treasury.
"If FDR is
as honest as he pretends to be, he will have that done immediately.
And in addition, why not compel the Fed to disclose their profits
and to pay the Government its share?
is done, it is rank dishonesty to talk of maintaining the credit
of the U.S. Government. "My own salary as a member of Congress
has been reduced, and while I am willing to give my part of it
that has been taken away from me to the U.S. Government, I regret
that the U.S. has suffered itself to be brought so low by the
vultures and crooks who are operating the roulette wheels and
faro tables in the Fed, that is now obliged to throw itself on
the mercy of its legislators and charwomen, its clerks, and it
poor pensioners and to take money out of our pockets to make good
the defalcations of the International Bankers who were placed
in control of the Treasury and given the monopoly of U.S. Currency
by the misbegotten Fed. "I am well aware that the International
Bankers who drive up to the door of the United States Treasury
in their limousines, look down with scorn upon members of Congress
because we work for so little, while they draw millions a year.
The difference is that we earn, or try to earn, what we get- and
they steal the greater part of their takings.
of the People They Rob
"I do not
like to see vivisections performed on human beings. I do not like
to see the American people used for experimental purposes by the
credit masters of the United States. They predicted among themselves
that they would be able to produce a condition here in which American
citizens would be completely humbled and left starving and penniless
in the streets.
that they made that assertion while they were fomenting their
conspiracy against the United States that they like to see a human
being, especially an American, stumbling from hunger when he walks.
"Something should be done about it, they say. Five-cent meals,
or something! "But FDR will not permit the House of Representatives
to investigate the condition of the Fed. FDR will not do that.
He has certain International Bankers to serve. They not look to
him as the man Higher Up who will protect them from the just wrath
of an outraged people.
Bankers have always hated our pensioners. A man with a small pension
is a ward of the Government. He is not dependent upon them for
a salary or wages. They cannot control him. They do not like him.
It gave them great pleasure, therefore, to slash the veterans.
"But FDR will
never do anything to embarrass his financial supporters. He will
cover up the crimes of the Fed.
was elected, Mr. Roosevelt advocated a return to the earlier practices
of the Fed, thus admitting its corruptness. The Democratic platform
advocated a change in the personnel of the Fed. These were campaign
bait. As a prominent Democrat lately remarked to me; "There is
no new deal. The same old crowd is in control."
of foreign creditors of the Fed have no validity in law. The foreign
creditors were the receivers- and the willing receivers- of stolen
goods! They have received through their banking fences immense
amounts of currency, and that currency was unlawfully taken from
the United States Treasury by the Fed.
the irregularities of the Fed quite early in its operations and
through fear, apparently, the Fed have for years suffered themselves
to be blackmailed and dragooning England to share in the business
of the Fed. "The Fed have unlawfully taken many millions of dollars
of the public credit of the United States and have given it to
foreign sellers on the security of the Debt paper of foreign buyers
in purely foreign transactions, and when the foreign buyers refused
to meet their obligations and the Fed saw no honest way of getting
the stolen goods back into their possession, they decided by control
of the executive to make the American people pay their losses!
of War Debts
entered into a conspiracy to deprive the people of the U.S. of
their title to the war debts and not being able to do that in
the way they intended, they are now engaged in an effort to debase
the American dollar so that foreign governments will have their
debts to this country cut in two, and then by means of other vicious
underhanded arrangements, they propose to remit the remainder.
"So far as
the U.S. is concerned, the gambling counters have no legal standing.
The U.S. Treasury cannot be compelled to make good the gambling
ventures of the corrupt and dishonest Fed. Still less should the
bank deposits of the U.S. be used for that purpose. Still less
should the national currency have been made irredeemable in gold
so that the gold which was massed and stored to redeem the currency
for American citizens may be used to pay the gambling debts of
the Fed for England's benefit. "The American people should have
their gold in their own possession where it cannot be held under
secret agreement for any foreign control bank, or world bank,
or foreign nation. Our own citizens have the prior claim to it.
The paper [money men] have in their possession deserves redemption
far more than U.S. currency and credit which was stolen from the
U.S. Treasury and bootlegged abroad.
the foreigners be made preferred creditors of the bankrupt U.S.?
Why should the U.S. be treated as bankrupt at all? This Government
has immense sums due it from the Fed. The directors of these institutions
are men of great wealth. Why should the guilty escape the consequences
of their misdeeds? Why should the people of these U.S. surrender
the value of their gold bank deposits to pay off the gambling
debts of these bankers? Why should Roosevelt promise foreigners
that the U.S. will play the part of a good neighbor, 'meeting
"Let the Fed
meet their own obligations.
of the Fed should be compelled to disgorge, and every acceptance
banker and every discount corporation which has made illegal profits
by means of public credit unlawfully bootlegged out of the U.S.
Treasury and hired out by the crooks and vultures of the Fed should
be compelled to disgorge.
Reserve Pays No Taxes
debts due to foreign receivers of stolen goods should not be paid
by sacrificing our title to our war debts, the assets of the U.S.
Treasury- which belong to all the people of the U.S. and which
it is our duty to preserve inviolate in the people's treasury.
Treasury cannot be made liable for them. The Fed currency must
be redeemed by the Fed banks or else these Fed banks must be liquidated.
"We know from
assertions made here by the Hon. John N. Garner, Vice-President
of the U.S. that there is a condition in the [United States such]
would cause American citizens, if they knew what it was, to lose
all confidence in their government.
"That is a
condition that Roosevelt will not have investigated. He has brought
with him from Wall Street, James Warburg, the son of Paul M. Warburg.
Mr. Warburg, alien born, and the son of an alien who did not become
naturalized here until several years after this Warburg's birth,
is a son of a former partner of Kuhn, Loeb and Co., a grandson
of another partner, a nephew of a former partner, and a nephew
of a present partner.
no office in our Government, but I am told that he is in daily
attendance at the Treasury, and that he has private quarters there!
In other words, Mr. Chairman, Kuhn, Loeb and Company now has control
and occupy the U.S. Treasury.
Treatment for Foreigners
of the Executive order which seems to place an embargo on shipments
of gold permits the Secretary of the Treasury, a former director
of the corrupt, to issue licenses at his discretion for the export
of gold coin, or bullion, earmarked or held in trust for a recognized
foreign government or foreign central bank for international settlement.
Now, Mr. Chairman, if gold held in trust for those foreign institutions
may be sent to them, I see no reason why gold held in trust for
American as evidenced by their gold certificates and other currency
issued by the U.S. Government should not be paid to them. "I think
that American citizens should be entitled to treatment at least
as good as that which the person is extending to foreign governments,
foreign central banks, and the bank of International Settlements.
I think a veteran of the world war, with a $20.00 gold certificate,
is at least as much entitled to receive his own gold for it, as
any international banker in the city of New York or London.
"By the terms
of this executive order, gold may be exported if it is actually
required, for the fulfillment of any contract entered into prior
to the date of this order by an applicant who, in obedience to
the executive order of April 5, 1933, has delivered gold coin,
gold bullion, or gold certificates. "This means that gold may
be exported to pay the obligations abroad of the Fed which were
incurred prior to the date of the order, namely, April 20, 1933.
"If a European
Bank should send 100,000,000 dollars in Fed currency to a bank
in this country for redemption, that bank could easily ship gold
to Europe in exchange for that currency. Such Fed currency would
represent "contracts" entered into prior to the date of the order.
If the Bank of International Settlements or any other foreign
bank holding any of the present gambling debt paper of the Fed
should draw a draft for the settlement of such obligation, gold
would be shopped to them because the debt contract would have
been entered into prior to the date of order.
I rise to a question of constitutional privilege.
I charge. . .Eugene Meyer, Roy A. Young, Edmund Platt, Eugene
B. Black, Adolph Casper Miller, Charles S. Hamlin, George R. James,
Andrew W. Mellon, Ogden L. Mills, William H. Woo W. Poole, J.F.T.
O'Connor, members of the Federal Reserve Board; F. H. Curtis,
J.H. Chane, R.L. Austin, George De Camp, L.B. Williams, W.W. Hoxton,
Oscar Newton, E.M. Stevens, J.S. Wood, J.N. Payton, M.L. McClure,
C.C. Walsh, Isaac B. Newton, Federal Reserve Agents, jointly and
severally, with violations of the Constitution and laws of the
United States, and whereas I charge them with having taken funds
from the U.S Treasury which were not appropriated by the
Congress of the United States, and I charge them with having unlawfully
taken over $80,000,000,000 from the U.S. Government in the year
1928, the said unlawful taking consisting of the unlawful creation
of claims against the U.S. Treasury to the extent of over $80,000,000,000
in the year 1928; and I charge them with similar thefts committed
in 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932 and 1933, and in years previous to 1928,
amounting to billions of dollars; and
charge them, jointly and severally with having unlawfully created
claims against the U.S. Treasury by unlawfully placing U.S. Government
credit in specific amounts to the credit of foreign governments
and foreign central banks of issue; private interests and commercial
and private banks of the U.S. and foreign countries, and branches
of foreign banks doing business in the U.S., to the extent of
billions of dollars; and with having made unlawful contracts in
the name of the U.S. Government and the U.S. Treasury; and with
having made false entries on books of account; and
charge them jointly and severally, with having taken Fed Notes
from the U.S. Treasury and with having put Fed Notes into circulation
without obeying the mandatory provision of the Fed Act which requires
the Fed Board to fix an interest rate on all issues of Fed Notes
supplied to Fed Banks, the interest resulting therefrom to be
paid by the Fed Banks to the government of the U.S. for the use
of the Fed Notes, and I charge them of having defrauded the U.S.
Government and the people of the U.S. of billions of dollars by
the commission of this crime, and
charge them, jointly and severally, with having purchased U.S.
Government securities with U.S. Government credit unlawfully taken
and with having sold the said U.S. Government securities back
to the people of the U.S. for gold or gold values and with having
again purchased U.S. Government securities with U.S. Government
credit unlawfully taken and with having again sold the said U.S.
Government security for gold or gold values, and I charge them
with having defrauded the U.S. Government and the people of the
U.S. by this rotary process; and
charge them, jointly and severally, with having unlawfully negotiated
U.S. Government securities, upon which the Government liability
was extinguished, as collateral security for Fed Notes and with
having substituted such securities for gold which was being held
as collateral security for Fed Notes, and with having by the process
defrauded the U.S. Government and the people of the U.S., and
I charge them with the theft of all the gold and currency they
obtained by this process; and
charge them, jointly and severally, with having unlawfully issued
Fed currency on false, worthless and fictitious acceptances and
other circulating evidence of debt, and with having made unlawful
advances of Fed currency, and with having unlawfully permitted
renewals of acceptances and renewals of other circulating evidences
of debt, and with having permitted acceptance bankers and discount
dealer corporations and other private bankers to violate the banking
laws of the U.S.; and
charge them, jointly and severally, with having conspired to have
evidences of debt to the extent of $1,000,000,000 artificially
created at the end of February, 1933, and early in March 1933,
and with having made unlawful issues and advances of Fed currency
on the security of said artificially created evidences of debt
for a sinister purpose, and with having assisted in the execution
of said sinister purpose; and
charge them, jointly and severally, with having brought about
the repudiation of the currency obligations of the Fed Banks to
the people of the U.S. and with having conspired to obtain a release
for the Fed Board and the Fed Banks from their contractual liability
to redeem all Fed currency in gold or lawful money at the Fed
Bank and with having defrauded the holders of Fed currency, and
with having conspired to have the debts and losses of the Fed
Board and the Fed Banks unlawfully transferred to the Government
and the people of the U.S., and
charge them, jointly and severally, with having unlawfully substituted
Fed currency and other irredeemable paper currency for gold in
the hands of the people after the decision to repudiate the Fed
currency and the national currency was made known to them, and
with thus having obtained money under false pretenses; and
charge them, jointly and severally, with having brought about
a repudiation of the notes of the U.S. in order that the gold
value of the said currency might be given to private interests,
foreign governments, foreign central banks of issues, and the
Bank of International Settlements, and the people of the U.S.
to be left without gold or lawful money and with no currency other
that a paper currency irredeemable in gold, and I charge them
with having done this for the benefit of private interests, foreign
governments, foreign central banks of issue, and the bank of International
charge them, jointly and severally, with conniving with the Edge
Law banks, and other Edge Law institutions, accepting banks, and
discount corporations, foreign central banks of issue, foreign
commercial banks, foreign corporations, and foreign individuals
with funds unlawfully taken from the U.S. Treasury; and I charge
them with having unlawfully permitted and made possible 'new financing'
for foreigners at the expense of the U.S. Treasury to the extent
of billions of dollars and with having unlawfully permitted and
made possible the bringing into the United States of immense quantities
of foreign securities, created in foreign countries for export
to the U.S. and with having unlawfully permitted the said foreign
securities to be imported into the U.S. instead of gold, which
was lawfully due to the U.S. on trade balances and otherwise,
and with having lawfully permitted and facilitated the sale of
the said foreign securities in the U.S., and
charge them, jointly and severally, with having unlawfully exported
U.S. coins and currency for a sinister purpose, and with having
deprived the people of the U.S. of their lawful medium of
exchange, and I charge them with having arbitrarily and unlawfully
reduced the amount of money and currency in circulation in the
U.S. to the lowest rate per capita in the history of the Government,
so that the great mass of the people have been left without a
sufficient medium of exchange, and I charge them with concealment
and evasion in refusing to make known the amount of U.S. money
in coins and paper currency exported and the amount remaining
in the U.S. as a result of which refusal the Congress of the U.S.
is unable to ascertain where the U.S. coins and issues of currency
are at the present time, and what amount of U.S. currency is now
held abroad; and
charge them, jointly and severally, with having arbitrarily and
unlawfully raised and lowered the rates of money and with having
arbitrarily increased and diminished the volume of currency in
circulation for the benefit of private interests at the expense
of the Government and the people of the U.S. and with having unlawfully
manipulated money rates, wages, salaries and property values both
real and personal, in the U.S. by unlawful operations in the open
discount market and by resale and repurchase agreements unsanctioned
by law, and
charge them jointly and severally, with having brought about the
decline in prices on the New York Stock Exchange and other exchanges
in October, 1929, by unlawful manipulation of money rates and
the volume of U.S. money and currency in circulation: by theft
of funds from the U.S. Treasury by gambling in acceptances and
U.S. Government securities; by service rendered to foreign and
domestic speculators and politicians, and by unlawful sale of
U.S. gold reserves abroad, and
"Whereas the unconstitutional inflation law imbedded in the so-called
Farm Relief Act by which the Fed Banks are given permission to
buy U.S. Government securities to the extent of $3,000,000,000
and to drew forth currency from the people's Treasury to the extent
of $3,000,000,000 is likely to result in connivance on the part
of said accused with others in the purchase by the Fed of the
U.S. Government securities to the extent of $3,000,000,000 with
U.S. Government's own credit unlawfully taken, it being obvious
that the Fed do no not intend to pay anything of value to the
U.S. Government for the said U.S. Government securities no provision
for payment in gold or lawful money appearing in the so-called
Farm Relief bill- and the U.S. Government will thus be placed
in a position of conferring a gift of $3,000,000,000 in the U.S.
Government securities on the Fed to enable them to pay more on
their bad debts to foreign governments, foreign central banks
of issue, private interests, and private and commercial banks,
both foreign and domestic, and the Bank of International Settlements,
U.S. Government will thus go into debt to the extent of $3,000,000,000
and will then have an additional claim of $3,000,000,000 in currency
unlawfully created against it and whereas no private interest
should be permitted to buy U.S. Government securities with the
Government's own credit unlawfully taken and whereas currency
should not be issued for the benefit of said private interest
or any interests on U.S. Government securities so acquired, and
whereas it has been publicly stated and not denied that the inflation
amendment of the Farm Relief Act is the matter of benefit which
was secured by Ramsey MacDonald, the Prime Minister of Great Britain,
upon the occasion of his latest visit to the U.S. Treasury, and
whereas there is grave danger that the accused will employ the
provision creating U.S. Government securities to the extent of
$3,000,000,000 and three millions in currency to be issuable thereupon
for the benefit of themselves and their foreign principals, and
that they will convert the currency so obtained to the uses of
Great Britain by secret arrangements with the Bank of England
of which they are the agents, and for which they maintain an account
and perform services at the expense of the U.S. Treasury, and
that they will likewise confer benefits upon the Bank of International
Settlements for which they maintain an account and perform services
at the expense of the U.S. Treasury; and
charge them, jointly and severally, with having concealed the
insolvency of the Fed and with having failed to report the insolvency
of the Fed to the Congress and with having conspired to have the
said insolvent institutions continue in operation, and with having
permitted the said insolvent institutions to receive U.S. Government
funds and other deposits, and with having permitted them to exercise
control over the gold reserves of the U.S. and with having permitted
them to transfer upward of $100,000,000,000 of their debts and
losses to the general public and the Government of the U.S., and
with having permitted foreign debts of the Fed to be paid with
the property, the savings, the wages, and the salaries of the
people of the U.S. and with the farms and the homes of the American
people, and whereas I charge them with forcing the bad debts of
the Fed upon the general public covertly and dishonestly and and
with taking the general wealth and savings of the people of the
U.S. under false pretenses, to pay the debts of the Fed to foreigners;
charge them, jointly and severally, with violations of the Fed
Act and other laws; with maladministration of the h evasions of
the Fed Law and other laws; and with having unlawfully failed
to report violations of law on the part of the Fed Banks which,
if known, would have caused the Fed Banks to lose their charters,
charge them, jointly and severally, with failure to protect and
maintain the gold reserves and the gold stock and gold coinage
of the U.S. and with having sold the gold reserves of the U.S
to foreign Governments, foreign central banks of issue, foreign
commercial and private banks, and other foreign institutions and
individuals at a profit to themselves, and I charge them with
having sold gold reserves of the U.S. so that between 1924 and
1928 the U.S. gained no gold on net account but suffered a decline
in its percentage of central gold reserves from the 45.9 percent
in 1924 to 37.5 percent in 1928 notwithstanding the fact that
the U.S. had a favorable balance of trade throughout that period,
charge them, jointly and severally, with having conspired to concentrate
U.S. Government securities and thus the national debt of the U.S.
in the hands of foreigners and international money lenders and
with having conspired to transfer to foreigners and international
money lenders title to and control of the financial resources
of the U.S.; and
charge them, jointly and severally, with having fictitiously paid
installments on the national debt with Government credit unlawfully
charge them, jointly and severally, with the loss of the U.S.
Government funds entrusted to their care; and
charge them, jointly and severally, with having destroyed independent
banks in the U.S. and with having thereby caused losses amounting
to billions of dollars to the said banks, and to the general public
of the U.S., and
charge them, jointly and severally, with the failure to furnish
true reports of the business operations and the true conditions
of the Fed to the Congress and the people, and having furnished
false and misleading reports to the congress of the U.S., and
charge them, jointly and severally, with having published false
and misleading propaganda intended to deceive the American people
and to cause the U.S. to lose its independence; and
charge them, jointly and severally, with unlawfully allowing Great
Britain to share in the profits of the Fed at the expense of the
Government and the people of the U.S.; and
charge them, jointly and severally, with having entered into secret
agreements and illegal transactions with Montague Norman, Governor
of the Bank of England; and
charge them, jointly and severally, with swindling the U.S. Treasury
and the people of the U.S. in pretending to have received payment
from Great Britain of the amount due on the British ware debt
to the U.S. in December, 1932; and
charge them, jointly and severally, with having conspired with
their foreign principals and others to defraud the U.S. Government
and to prevent the people of the U.S. from receiving payment of
the war debts due to the U.S. from foreign nations; and
charge them, jointly and severally, with having robbed the U.S
Government and the people of the U.S. by their theft and sale
of the gold reserves of the U.S. and other unlawful transactions
created a deficit in the U.S. Treasury, which has necessitated
to a large extent the destruction of our national defense and
the reduction of the U.S. Army and the U.S. Navy and other branches
of the national defense; and
charge them, jointly and severally, of having reduced the U.S.
from a first class power to one that is dependent, and with having
reduced the U.S. from a rich and powerful nation to one that is
internationally poor; and
charge them, jointly and severally, with the crime of having treasonable
conspired and acted against the peace and security of the U.S.
and with having treasonable conspired to destroy constitutional
Government in the U.S.
That the Committee on the Judiciary is authorized and directed
as a whole or by subcommittee, to investigate the official conduct
of the Fed agents to determine whether, in the opinion of the
said committee, they have been guilty of any high crime or misdemeanor
which in the contemplation the Constitution requires the interposition
of the Constitutional powers of the House. Such Committee shall
report its finding to the House, together with such resolution
or resolutions of impeachment or other recommendations as it deems
"For the purpose
of this resolution the Committee is authorized to sit and act
during the present Congress at such times and places in the District
of Columbia or elsewhere, whether or not the House is sitting,
has recessed or has adjourned, to hold such clerical, stenographic,
and other assistants, to require of such witnesses and the production
of such books, papers, and documents, to take such testimony,
to have such printing and binding done, and to make such expenditures
as it deems necessary."
discussion and upon the motion of Mr. Byrns, the resolution and
charge was referred to the Committee on the Judiciary.
on McFadden's Life Reported"
on Former Congressman Louis T. McFaddens's "heart-failure sudden-death"
on Oct. 3, 1936, after a "dose" of "intestinal flu," "Pelley's
Weekly" of Oct. 14 said:
this sterling American patriot has made the Passing, it
can be revealed that not long after his public utterance
against the encroaching powers of Judah, it became known
among his intimates that he had suffered two attacks against
his life. The first attack came in the form of two revolver
shots fired at him from ambush as he was alighting from
a cab in front of one of the Capital hotels. Fortunately
both shots missed him, the bullets burying themselves in
the structure of the cab.
violently ill after partaking of food at a political banquet
at Washington. His life was only saved from what was subsequently
announced as a poisoning by the presence of a physician
friend at the banquet, who at once procured a stomach
pump and subjected the Congressman to emergency treatment."
Edward Edmondson (Publicist-Economist)
President Andrew Jackson stated in reference to the bankers at
the state of his administration:
are a den of vipers and thieves.
I intend to rout you out, and by the Eternal God, I will rout
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